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发表于 2014-10-09 14:41:10
BeginninglIn this paper, we focus on the need for lThis paper proceeds as follow.lThe structure of the paper is as follows.lIn this paper, we shall first briefly introduce fuzzy sets and related conceptslTo begin with we will provide a brief background on the IntroductionlThis will be followed by a description of the fuzzy nature of the problem and a detailed presentation of how the required membership functions are defined. lDetails on xx and xx are discussed in later sections.lIn the next section, after a statement of the basic problem, various situations involving possibility knowledge are investigated: first, an entirely possibility model is proposed; then the cases of a fuzzy service time with stochastic arrivals and non‑fuzzy service rule is studied; lastly, fuzzy service rule are considered. ReviewlThis review is followed by an introduction. lA brief summary of some of the relevant concepts in xxx and xxx is presented in Section 2.lIn the next section a brief view of the .... is given. lIn the next section, a short review of ... is given with special regard to ...lSection 2 reviews relevant research related to xx.lSection 1.1 briefly surveys the motivation for a methodology of action, while 1.2 looks at the difficulties posed by the complexity of systems and outlines the need for development of possibility methods. BodylSection 1 defines the notion of robustness, and argues for its importance.lSection 1 devoted to the basic aspects of the FLC decision‑making logic.lSection 2 gives the background of the problem which includes xxxlSection 2 discusses some problems with and approaches to, natural language understanding.lSection 2 explains how flexibility which often ... can be expressed in terms of fuzzy time‑windowlSection 3 discusses the aspects of fuzzy set theory that are used in the ...lSection 3 describes the system itself in a general way, including the ..and also discusses how to evaluate system performance.lSection 3 describes a new measure of xx.lSection 3 demonstrates the use of fuzzy possibility theory in the analysis of xx.lSection 3 is a fine description of fuzzy formulation of human decision.lSection 3, is developed to the modeling and processing of fuzzy decision ruleslThe main idea of the FLC is described in Section 3 while Section 4 describes the xx strategies.lSection 3 and 4 show experimental studies for verifying the proposed model.lSection 4 discusses a previous fuzzy set‑based approach to cost variance investigation.lSection 4 gives a specific example of xxx.lSection 4 is the experimental study to make a fuzzy model of memory process.lSection 4 contains a discussion of the implication of the results of Section 2 and 3.lSection 4 applies this fuzzy measure to the analysis of xx and illustrate its use on experimental data.lSection 5 presents the primary results of the paper: a fuzzy set model ..lSection 5 contains some conclusions plus some ideas for further work.lSection 6 illustrate the model with an example.lVarious ways of fuzzification and the reasons for their choice are discussed very briefly in Section 2.lIn Section 2 are presented the block diagram expression of a whole model of human DM systemlIn Section 2 we shall list a collection of basic assumptions which a ... scheme must satisfy.lIn Section 2 of this paper, we present representation and uniqueness theorems for the fundamental measurement of fuzziness when the domain of discourse is order‑dense. lIn Section 3, we describe the preliminary results of an empirical study currently in progress to verify the measurement model and to construct membership functions.lIn Section 5 is analyzed the inference process through the two kinds of inference experiments... This SectionlIn this section, the characteristics and environment under which MRP is designed are described.lWe will provide in this section basic terminologies and notations which are necessary for the understanding of subsequent results. Next SectionlThe next section describes the mathematics that goes into the computer implementation of such fuzzy logic statements.lHowever, it is cumbersome for this purpose and in practical applications the formulae were rearranged and simplified as discussed in the next section.lThe three components will be described in the next two section, and an example of xx analysis of a computer information system will then illustrate their use.lWe can interpret the results of Experiments I and II as in the following sections.lThe next section summarizes the method in a from that is useful for arguments based on xx SummarylThis paper concludes with a discussion of future research consideration in section 5.lSection 5 summarizes the results of this investigation.lSection 5 gives the conclusions and future directions of research.lSection 7 provides a summary and a discussion of some extensions of the paper.lFinally, conclusions and future work are summarizedlThe basic questions posed above are then discussed and conclusions are drawn.lSection 7 is the conclusion of the paper. Chapter 0. AbstractlA basic problem in the design of xx is presented by the choice of a xx rate for the measurement of experimental variables.lThis paper examines a new measure of xx in xx based on fuzzy mathematics which overcomes the difficulties found in other xx measures.lThis paper describes a system for the analysis of the xx.lThe method involves the construction of xx from fuzzy relations.lThe procedure is useful in analyzing how groups reach a decision.lThe technique used is to employ a newly developed and versatile xx algorithms.lThe usefulness of xx is also considered. A brief methodology used in xx is discussed.l The analysis is useful in xx and xx problem.l A model is developed for a xx analysis using fuzzy matrices.l Algorithms to combine these estimates and produce a xx are presented and justified.l The use of the method is discussed and an example is given.l Results of an experimental applications of this xx analysis procedure are given to illustrate the proposed technique.l This paper analyses problems in l This paper outlines the functions carried out by ...l This paper includes an illustration of the ...l This paper provides an overview and information useful for approachingl Emphasis is placed on the construction of a criterion function by which the xx in achieving a hierarchical system of objectives are evaluated.l The main emphasis is placed on the problem of xxl Our proposed model is verified through experimental study.l The experimental results reveal interesting examples of fuzzy phases of : xx,xxl The compatibility of a project in terms of cost, and xx are likewise represented by linguistic variables.l A didactic example is included to illustrate the computational procedureChapter 1. IntroductionTimel Over the course of the past 30 years, .. has emerged form intuitive l Technological revolutions have recently hit the industrial worldl The advent of ... systems for has had a significant impact on the l The development of ... is exploredl During the past decade, the theory of fuzzy sets has developed in a variety of directions,l The concept of xx was investigated quite intensively in recent yearsl There has been a turning point in ... methodology in accordance with the advent of ...l A major concern in ... today is to continue to improve...l A xx is a latecomer in the part representation arena.l At the time of this writing, there is still no standard way of xxl Although a lot of effort is being spent on improving these weaknesses, the efficient and effective method has yet to be developed.l The pioneer work can be traced to xx [1965].l To date, none of the methods developed is perfect and all are far from ready to be used in commercial systems.Objective / Goal / Purposel The purpose of the inference engine can be outlined as follows:l The ultimate goal of the xx system is to allow the non‑experts to utilize the existing knowledge in the area of manual handling of loads, and to provide intelligent, computer‑aided instruction for xxx.l The paper concerns the development of a xxl The scope of this research lies inl The main theme of the paper is the application of rule‑based decision making.l These objectives are to be met with such thoroughness and confidence as to permit ...l The objectives of the ... operations study are as follows:l The primary purpose/consideration/objective ofl The ultimate goal of this concept is to providel The main objective of such a ... system is tol The aim of this paper is to provide methods to construct such probability distribution.l In order to achieve these objectives, an xx must meet the following requirements:l In order to take advantage of their similarityl more research is still required before final goal of ... can be completedl In this trial, the objective is to generate...l for the sake of concentrating on ... research issuesl A major goal of this report is to extend the utilization of a recently developed procedure for the xx.l For an illustrative purpose, four well‑known OR problems are studied in presence of fuzzy data: xx.l A major thrust of the paper is to discuss approaches and strategies for structuring ..methodsl This illustration points out the need to specifyl The ultimate goal is both descriptive and prescriptive.l Chapter 2. Literature Reviewl A wealth of information is to be found in the statistics literature, for example, regarding xxl A considerable amount of research has been done .. during the last decadel A great number of studies report on the treatment of uncertainties associated with xx.l There is considerable amount of literature on planningl However, these studies do not provide much attention to undertainty in xx.l Since then, the subject has been extensively explored and it is still under investigation as well in methodological aspects as in concrete applications.l Many research studies have been carried out on this topic.l Problem of xx draw recently more and more attention of system analysis.l Attempts to resolve this dilemma have resulted in the development of l Many complex processes unfortunately, do not yield to this design procedure and have, therefore, not yet been automated.l Most of the methods developed so far are deterministic and /or probabilistic in nature.l The central issue in all these studies is to l The problem of xx has been studied by other investigators, however, these studies have been based upon classical statistical approaches.l Applied ... techniques tol Characterized the ... system asl Developed an algorithm tol Developed a system called ... whichl Uses an iterative algorithm to deducel Emphasized the need tol Identifies six key issues surrounding high technologyl A comprehensive study of the .. has been undertaken l Much work has been reported recently in these filedl Proposedl Presentedl State thatl Point out that the problem of l Describedl Illustratedl Indicatedl Has shown / showedl Addressl Highlightsl A study on ...was done / developed by []l Previous work, such as [] and [], deal only withl The approach taken by [] isl The system developed by [] consistsl A paper relevant to this research was published by []l []’s model requires consideration of ..l []’ model draws attention to evolution in human developmentl []’s model focuses on...l Little research has been conducted in applying ... tol The published information that is relevant to this research...l This study further shows thatl Their work is based on the principle of l More history of ... can be found in xx et al. [1979].l Studies have been completed to establishedl The ...studies indicated that l Though application of xx in the filed of xx has proliferated in recent years, effort in analyzing xx, especially xx, is lacking.Problem / Issue / Questionl Unfortunately, real-world engineering problems such as manufacturing planning do not fit well with this narrowly defined model. They tend to span broad activities and require consideration of multiple aspects.l Remedy / solve / alleviate these problemsl ... is a difficult problem, yet to be adequately resolvedl Two major problems have yet to be addressedl An unanswered questionl This problem in essence involves using x to obtain a solution.l An additional research issue to be tackled is ....l Some important issues in developing a ... system are discussedl The three prime issues can be summarized:l The situation leads to the problem of how to determine the ...l There have been many attempts to l It is expected to be serious barrier to l It offers a simple solution in a limited domain for a complex problem.l There are several ways to get around this problem.l As difficult as it seems to be, xx is by no means new.l The problem is to recognize xx from a design representation.l A xx problem can trace its roots to xx. xx [1987] used a heuristic approach to simplify the complexity of the problem.l Several problems are associated with them.l Although some progress has been made in this area, at least two major obstacles must be overcome before a fully automated system can be realized.l Most problems in practice are complicatedl More problem surface here.l Hamper effort toward a xx systeml In order to overcome the limitations due to incomplete and imprecise xx knowledge, a xx program has been developed, which bases its knowledge upon the statistical analysis of a sample population of xxl The above difficulties are real challenges faced by researchers attempting to developl This type of mapping raises no controversy to the issue of membership function determination.l However, attempts to quantify the xx have met both theoretical and empirical problems.l It has become apparent that in order to apply this new methodological framework to real‑world problems and data, we have to pay attention to the problems of xx and xx.Chapter 3. Proposed methodologyAssumptionl In the case when the assumption of a xx seems to be too restrictive or inadequate, the formulation with Fuzzy termination time, i.e. given by a fuzzy set in the space of control stages, may be applied.l We assume here the fuzzy constraints to be state‑dependent, and the fuzzy goal to be the same for all the control states, xx, which stems from the problem’s nature.l An approach to the solution of this problem is presented under the assumption that the sampling rate Decision can be made prior to the execution of the experiment, as opposed to being made while the experiment is in progress.l Another assumption made above is that there are precise odds at which the expert is indifferent.l Main simplifying assumptions are:l This, in our view, is a questionable assumption.Outline / Structure / Modulel An outline of the researchl Information is incorporated within the schemel Is built into ... structurel A nice modular structure.l The principles of ... are applied as modularized criteriaClassificationl A xx system comprises three main components:l Must decompose the original .. into a set of ..l Consists of the following steps:l This is summarized in the following steps:l Can be broadly classified into the following areas:l Can be characterized by its function of effectively processing thel Can allow further breadth of application of ...into morel The following steps should be followedl xx can be classified by a different ways.l Based on the xx, one may classify xx into the following:l This catalog may change due to wear, breakage, and purchasing.Systeml Unlike many conventional program, expert systems do not usually deal with problem for which there is clearly a right or wrong answer.l The system consists of both ... and ...l The system has a hierarchical modular architecture organized on three levels.l expert system domains are area of expertisel To develop a xx system for xx, the following factors must be considered:l The system has been developed / designed to determinel The system has proven to be able to l The domain in which an expert system operates is a particular domainl The system comprises a ... withl The system is [feature-oriented ] / based on the ... techniquel The system environment must be relatively stablel The system is utilized to generate, load, store, update and retrieve ...l The development of a xx system has two stages: xx stage and xx stage.l The most essential part of .. system is the ...l The successful developments in ESs have made them an important tool in the development of l An automated system was developed forl In this case, the system can be considered to be generative.l An interactive automatic ... systeml A .. is commonly thought of as a truly integrated .. systeml Should be capable of being generated from a ... systeml xx is an important part of the integrated system.l The model consists of four rule bases, each of which addresses a separate problem in the hierarchy of scheduling decision.l The rule bases are linked to each other in a chin‑like manner in the sense that the consequent of one rule base constitutes a part of the antecedent of the next rule base.l The rule base consists of all possible combinations of the linguistic terms associated with the linguistic variable of the antecedent of a rule.Computer Systeml The system has been implemented using Prolog language in an MS‑DOS environment. Prolog was chosen because it offers a well known and flexible environment in which fuzzy reasoning may be easily implemented.l The current version of the xx program when compiled with WATFOR77 results in an executable code of about 270K bytes. Typical run time, when run on a XX computer (an IBM compatible machine) operating at 4.77 Mhz with 640K RAM, ranges from 10 min to 2h, depending on the size (or complexity) of the problem.l Time consuming procedures have been implemented in C‑language and directly linked to the Prolog environment.l The xx process, once the xx’s data has been entered, requires approximately 180 seconds.l It should be noted that the computation was done with a 20 Hhz, 80386209;based microcomputer equipped with a 80387 math co‑processor.l The computer programs used for the analyses, one based on the xx method and the other based on the new method, were written in FORTRAN with a compiler that supports the math co‑processor.l Lisp, Prolog give maximum flexibility but also maximizes development time.l Internal representation is the way a model is represented in the computer.l An interactive menu-driven procedure is used in this studyl Shell can be develop very fast at the cost of time fairly severe limitations.l While there is no measurable saving of time for the case involving five criteria, the saving is dramatic for the case involving 10 criteria -- the computation time reduces from 10 hr 40 min to about 1 min.l This combination is being implemented in an objected‑oriented programming environment (Smalltalk‑80 system) to solve problems encountered in construction xxx.Method / Approach / Study / Process Model / Equation /Algorithm / Rule / Formula / Techniquel A discussion is presented of a problem-solving systeml To improve the efficiency of the method, the following approach may be applied.l In order to an investigation was made to find the causes of thel Although large collections of rules and equations have been complied, none are generally accepted l This approach will be explained and discussed thoroughly in the body of the report.l This can be accomplished byl This algorithm to compute the total cost can be described step by step as follows:l The above preliminary analysis has provided important informationl Various methods have been proposed for selecting an optimum...l These concepts have been applied to l On the basis of the concept mentioned above,l This can be achieved byl This fact suggests that a new conceptl This was accomplished by taking ...l The preparatory stage is very time consuming process.l Test are performed for validity, completeness, and compatibilityl There is little hope of achieving successful ...l There has been an increasing awareness of the potential of using most ..so far made have not taken this approach, with the exception ofl Only a few studies can be found.l It is a very tedious process to go throughl It is only when .. has been completed that .. may be effectedl The entire interpretation process is conducted in one’s head.l These approaches are sometimes very tedious.l Several techniques can be usedl A polynomial parametric model can be written as [the following]/[follows]:l A xx model is constructed/formulated using xx.l A xx model represents an xx by its xx.l A process decision model captures the logic essential tol From the equation above, xx is equal to the summation of xx times the ...l The validity of a xx model can be checked using Euler’s formula.l Given a model, one can mathematically determine whether ... or ...l Equations for xx need to be derived and implemented in the system.l A number of heuristic rules have been developed forl Optimum .. techniques can be made more reliable by ... so thatl An algorithm based on the characteristic ... is used to determinel Euler’s formula states the following:l The completed model should agree with the formula.l For manufacturing purposes, a detailed and precise model of the object is necessaryl Engineering design models are very well defined; therefore, l To keep the domain narrow enough to be implementable, yet wide enough tobe useful.Point of Viewl from an implementation standpoint,l From the point of view of this application,l From this point of view, Zadeh suggested an inference rule named xxx (CRI for short).l Information is the meaningful interpretation and correlation of some aggregation of data in order to allow one to make decisions.l From a practical point of view, the computational aspects of an FLC require a simplification of the fuzzy control algorithm. The use of a hammer to insert screws, although partly effective, tends to distort, destroy, and generally defeat the purpose of using a screw [Kusiak AI Implications for CIM p.129]Justificationl We choose the so called xx in our experiment because it has received wide acceptance and canl Prolog was chosen because it offers a well known and flexible environment in which fuzzy reasoning may be easily implemented.l The rationale behind this is that it can be much easier for an estimator to rate a cost as high than to attempt to place a dollar value on the estimate.l This strategy has been widely used in fuzzy control applications since it is natural and easy to implement.l A function definition expresses the membership function of a fuzzy set in a functional form, typically a bell‑shaped function, etc. Such functions are used in FLC because they lead themselves to manipulation through the use of fuzzy arithmetic.l It should be noted that in our daily life most of the information on which our decisions are based is linguistic rather than numerical in nature. Seen in this perspective, fuzzy control rules provide a natural framework for the characterization of human behavior and decisions analysis. l Many experts have found that fuzzy control rules provide a convenient way to express their domain knowledge. This explains why most FLCs are based on the knowledge and experience which are expressed in the language of fuzzy "if‑the" rule.Chapter 4. ExamplesExample/ Datal The data used in the following example was taken from an experiment in which xx was measured between x and x using a xx technique.l The data consists of over xx measurements.l An example of xx is discussed and the control rules of xx are compared with a xxl Examples of complex processes to which this technique may be applied are xx, xx, etc.l The following example is constructed only for the purpose of illustrating the computational procedure discussed.l This example clearly demonstrates that the profile of an individual xx, or a very small group of xx, with no enough data to be studied statistically, can be meaningfully analyzed by fuzzy possibilistic methods.l There is no space here to go into detail on all these methods, but deserve a mention and the bibliography will point to detailed references for those wishing this level of detail.l Note that the golf ball spotting example is used throughout the paper.Comparisonsl As well, the pros and cons of these representations from a process planning point of view will be discussed.l The method of using xx to implement xx described by Zadeh (1973) appeared more suitablel As discussed [in the previous section]/[preciously],Relationl We can not invert F’ directly because it defines a many-to-one mapping.l The relationships appear very complicatel Lifting tasks involve complex and imprecise relationship between the task variables and the human operator’s characteristics.l These methods are based on the relationship between ... and ...l The fundamental concept of a fuzzy rating language is that we can establish a relationship among terms such as high, medium, and low, and then modify these relationships.l This article will thus mention the latter as well as the former.l The former two bear a close relation to a fuzzy Cartesian product.Importancel The emphasis is on an implementation of a general approach to rule based decision making.Consideration / Attentionl Careful evaluation is necessary to ensure l Such a formulation does not change further considerations.l Considerable attention has been paid tol Attention should be paid to an important finding of this investigation.l Caution should be exercised in this process to avoid ...l Primary consideration is given to ... components, though others can be accommodatedl After ... has been defined by ..., a carefully analysis is carried out/performed to determinel A number of factors such as ...need to be taken into consideration before making the appropriate decision.l It should be noted thatl It is important to point out that ...l These considerations have heightened interest in the possibility of providing ...l We should stress the fundamental importance of the xxChapter 5. Results.Advantages / Disadvantagel One of the major advantages of this new measure of xx is that it can be applied to the experimental study ofl One advantage of using a .. is the ease of preparing it.l The xx system is versatilel It has a very fast decision making processl All the algorithms involve mostly logical operations.l It can be easily and without additional cost implemented in a microprocessor‑based environment.l It can reduce the waste of designing from scratch.l The advantages of using a xx to represent xx are the following:l However, xx is not without its shortcomings.l In most cases, the xxx shows an improvement over the existing xxx.l Compared to the existing xx, the impacts of the xx are generally reduced by 5% to 9%.l The "best case" results shows a savings of 6% to 9%.l Most of the existing works based on xx approach can only recognize a xx .l Most of the above methods are computational expansive and limited to xx.l Some other advantages of xx are the following:l The problem is the limitation of this method to a limited domain of parts.l It proved limited in application because it demanded precision in system modeling that was impossible in practice.l There are advantages to be gained in the structuring of costs and benefits, the use of xx, l The disadvantages of this method are also disadvantages of conventional xx approaches.l This combines the best features of both techniquesl Hopefully, this tool can be as the reference framework of for developing a xx platform, and helping the administration, marketing, and knowledge management activities in virtual communities.Resultsl An improvement on the result shown above can be made by based on the data providedl Discussion of these theories is beyond the scope of this reviewl Based on the information contained in thisl The result can be categorized into nine classesl The results are illustrated by an examplel The experimental results for each xx time are reported in Table 2.l From the results obtained so far, it seem thatl Because of the inaccuracy of the ..., a conclusion cannot be drawn as l Although much effort has been made to., this reality is far from completion.l The results indicate that the total benefits are higher than the total costs.l Their results may then serve as guidelines for lower level models, less fuzzy and more detailed.Chapter 6. Conclusionl From the discussion, one may conclude that ...l Form the above discussion, the conclusion can be reached that l The conclusions drawn are also validl In conclusion to this, it becomes obvious that the problem of xx lies not only in...l We have attempted to introduce some concepts associated with a theory ofxx based on fuzzy sets.l Considerable more work, hopefully, will be done in this areal A fuzzy set procedure is proposed to solve xx selection problems interwoven with imprecise datal Employing the compositional rule of inference, the assessment of the xx compatibility in achieving prescribed xx projectiles in any level of the hierarchy is made possible.l This paper has presented a theoretical and experimental study of the xx process and xx concept.l The experimental research results will hopefully serve as useful feedback information for improvements for xx work.l The scope of this contribution was to introduce a xx method.l In general, fuzzy sets theory provides an alternative foundation for xx analysis in a fuzzy environment.Future Researchl Thus, first extension of the approach could be, l Present some cues for a further approach from Fuzzy Sets Theory application to l Some improvements to the scheduling aspect of the model may be brought through additional levels in the hierarchy for more detailed representation of the scheduling activity.Tables and Figuresl Figure 7-1 sketches these relationships.l The graphical representation of these functions is shown in Figure 1.l The xx may be depicted as in Figure 1.l Figure x shows the schematic diagram of the l Figure 1 though 2 provide a ... thatl the architecture of this expert system for .... is illustrated in Figure 2.l Figure 2 gives the outline of an ... systeml Table shows thel as shown in Table 1 and 2l This concept is illustrated in Figure 2l At the top of Table xx are shown two blocks of data. l Each table or matrix has constructs xx through xx as row‑headings,xx through xx as column‑headings.l A table of .. is developed and significant recommendations are made.CONJUGATIONTo Indicate Additionl additionally, again, also, and then, as can be easily understood, besides, equally important, especially, finally, for the same reason, first, further, furthermore, in addition, last, likewise, moreover, next, second, third, too, evidently, obviously, roughly speaking, broadly speakingTo Indicate Cause and Effectl accordingly, as a result, consequently, for this reason, hence, in short, otherwise, then, therefore, thus, trulyTo indicate Comparisonl in a like manner, likewise, similarly , alternativelyTo Indicate Concessionl after all, although this may be true, at the same time, even though, even so , I admit, naturally, of courseTo Indicate Contrastl and yet, at the same time, but, for all that, however, yet, in fact, in contrast, in the real life, in spite of, nevertheless, notwithstanding, normally, on the contrary, on the other hand, still, traditionally, rather, unfortunately,To Indicate Time Relationshipsl after a short time, afterwards, as indicated earlier, as long as, as soon as, at last, at length, at the moment, at that time, at the same time, before, earlier, currently, immediately, in the meantime, in recent years, lately, later, meanwhile, often, of late, presently, recently, soon, shortly, since, thereupon, temporarily, therefore, until, when, whileTo Indicate Special Features or Examplesl for example, for instance, incidentally, indeed, in fact, in other words, in particular, in practice, specifically, that is, to illustrate, in this respect, theoretically, as mentioned before / aboveTo Indicate Summaryl in brief, in conclusion, in short, in summary, on the whole, to conclude, in general, to summarize, to sum up, as a result, ultimately,VERB PHASEl build a .. modell build up the key linkl began a new era in ...l can be regarded as / achieved / used to/for / found / obtained throughl can result inl carries out ... tasks l production information in order to simultaneouslyl contains all information necessary to describel do not make use of production informationl deals withl end with failurel fetch the information from the model directlyl has great potential / yet to be resolved / spurred the development of /been recognized as l BE aimed at / built up / carried out by / essentially concerned with / considered to be the key technology / associated with each feature of a composite component / cable of / currently implemented for / demonstrated by an example / finally reached / made equal to / equivalent to / more suitable to / oriented to / interpreted as / pointed out / potentially of great benefit in the complex task of / shown in / used to effectively guide the searchl makes use of l make upl meets the needs of real life production,/ the current demands placed upon itl must be justifiedl point outl play an important rolel relates tol rely on l satisfy the needsl determine the total requirements for the ...l uses ... as a key to search for...l without relying onl will be available/ performed/ overlookedNOUN PHASEl a basic technical function of l a critical needl a key / principle feature ofl a substantial impact onl an intensive review was conductedl an increasing need for expanding the application of ....l an important component / function / aspect / issuel each rule is numbered in sequencel each of these involvesl for this calculation, it is necessary to definel in the physical environment / integration ofl in the reality of situations where …l many aspects of l most past efforts have been spent on ...l common sense to a well studied and documented technical field.l sources of additional information on ... are listedl systematic and rationally structured formatl the basis on which a range of ...operations can be established is shownl THE basic philosophy / principles of / key element / general hypothesis / candidate list of / concept of ... has attracted wide interest / function is concerned with / heart / impact / nature / role / task of / kernel functions l the number of parts needed to l the above statement means thatl the output data is passed to l the proposed method / underlying principlel the recommendations made in this report, if implemented, shouldl this information resides inl this process is composed of ... different ... operationl along with the use of l concerning general aspects ofl due tol for later use in generating...,l in turn,l IT IS believed / noted / assumed / suggested / shown / quite evident / appears / implies that / intended for / of no important tol it can be claimed/concluded thatl it demonstrates the decisions required of l it also provides information to ..l it becomes essential to l let ... be the probability thatl once... is written, it is compiled into...l suppose it is observed thatl this is becausel this results in a l upon completion of the ... analysis, l when the knowledge is of mathematics or quantum physics, it will also berecorded in books and papersl selection of rules for using the tools, for generating operation plans, is another matter of preference, since practice varies greatly.l for the sake of conveniencel correct decision to be reachl keeping the number of rules to a minimum.l a good process plan will result exhibiting several characteristics:l practical solutionsl because of rather small job lot sizesl Backward reasoning can be used to answer the question "should milling tool be select" different level of knowledge in the realm of process planning

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